Jürgen Stroop PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 12 March 2011 12:49

Jürgen Stroop.jpg Jürgen Stroop, born Josef Stroop

Born: September 26, 1895,Detmold, Germany

Died: March 6, 1952 in Warsaw, Poland

Age: 57

Cause of death: Hanged

Notable because: Nazi office who ordered summary execution of airmen shot down in his field of command and was sent by Himmler to suppress the Warsaw ghetto uprising  in 1943.

Jürgen Stroop was a high-ranking Nazi SS and police officer during World War II. After the war, he was convicted of war crimes and hanged.

Jürgen Stroop was born in Detmold, in the Principality of Lippe, German Empire, the son of a police officer. After receiving an elementary education, he became an apprentice with the land register in his home town, where he worked until the start of World War I. He joined the Imperial German Army in 1914 as a volunteer, served in several infantry regiments at the front, won an Iron Cross 2nd Class and was wounded in action. At the end of the war, Stroop held the rank of a vice- Feldwebel (Sergeant). After World War I, he returned to work at the land register.

Stroop joined the SS and the NSDAP in 1932. His career took off during the election campaign of the same year. In 1933, he was appointed leader of the state auxiliary police. One year later, he was promoted from the rank of SS-Oberscharführer to the rank of Hauptsturmführer. Subsequently he worked for the SS administration in Münster and Hamburg. In the fall (autumn) of 1938, he was promoted again, this time to the rank of SS-Standartenführer (Colonel). Stroop served in the Sudetenland. After the invasion of Poland, he served as commander of the SS-section in Gnesen (Gniezno). During the occupation of Poland, Stroop was transferred to Poznan as head of Selbstschutz, the notorious "self-defense" formation of the local ethnic Germans.

In May 1941, Stroop changed his name from Josef to Jürgen for ideological reasons and in honor of his deceased son. From July 7 to September 15 1941, Stroop served in combat on the eastern front with the infantry regiment of the 3rd SS Division Totenkopf. He was awarded a Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd Class and an Infantry Assault Badge in Bronze. On 16 September 1942, he was promoted to SS-Brigadeführer and assigned as an Inspector of the SiPo and SD of the Higher SS and Police Leader for Russia South. In this position Stroop worked to help secure a key logistical route for German forces on the Eastern Front. Beginning in October 1942, Stroop commanded an SS garrison at Kherson, before becoming the SS and Police Leader for Lemberg (Lviv) in February 1943.

Jürgen Stroop (center, in field cap) with his men in the burning Warsaw Ghetto, 1943

Stroop's most historically prominent role was the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, an action which cost the lives of over 50,000 people. He was sent to Warsaw on April 17, 1943 by Heinrich Himmler, as a replacement for SS-Oberführer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, who was relieved of duty. Stroop took over from Sammern following the latter's failure at the onset of the uprising:

I had two battalions of Waffen-SS, one hundred army men, units of Order Police, and seventy-five to a hundred Security Police people. The Security Police had been active in the Warsaw ghetto for some time, and during this program it was their function to accompany SS units in groups of six or eight, as guides and experts in ghetto matters.


The Stroop Report

Stroop had recently been involved in operations against Soviet partisans in Ukraine and was familiar with the latest German counter-insurgency tactics. He ordered the entire Ghetto to be burned down systematically and blown up building by building, and all of Warsaw's Jews to be killed or deported to extermination camps. After the uprising was suppressed, he prepared a detailed record of the operation. A 75-page report, which was bound together in black leather and included copies of all communiqués sent to SS Police Leader East Friedrich-Wilhelm Kruger and photographs with captions in Gothic script. Originally titled "The Jewish Quarter of Warsaw is no more!", it is commonly referred to as "The Stroop Report" and would later be used as evidence at the Nuremberg Trials. Stroop then formally assumed the position of SS and Police Leader of Warsaw. Kruger presented an Iron Cross 1st Class to him on 18 June 1943 for the Warsaw Ghetto "action" at a gala reception in Warsaw’s Lazienki Park.

Stroop was subsequently named the Higher SS and Police Leader in Greece on September 8, 1943. The local civilian administration found his methods and behaviour unacceptable and withdrew cooperation, forbidding the local Order Police from having anything to do with him, which made his position untenable. Consequently, he was removed and on November 9 he was appointed Commander of SS-Oberabschnitt Rhein-Westmark (an SS administrative district named for the Rhine and Gau Westmark) in Wiesbaden. In this position he served until the close of the war.

Warsaw Ghetto; 1943
Stroop before a Polish court in 1951

In early May 1945, Stroop was captured by American forces in the town of Rottau in Bavaria. Wearing the uniform of an infantry officer, he bore false discharge papers made out to a Wehrmacht Captain of Reserve Josef Straub. He kept to this story for nearly two months, before admitting to being Jürgen Stroop on July 2.

He was then put on trial by the U.S. Military Tribunal at Dachau (Dachau Trials) for the summary executions of Allied airmen (Fliegermorde), shot down over Germany in his field of command. On March 21, 1947, he was sentenced to death by the tribunal. However, that sentence was not carried out; instead, he was extradited for trial to Poland.

Upon extradition, Stroop was again found guilty of war crimes. While in Mokotów Prison in Warsaw, awaiting trial, Stroop was placed in the same cell with Kazimierz Moczarski, political prisoner and former Polish resistance fighter jailed by the communist secret police. After his eventual release in 1956, Moczarski wrote a book about his time spent with Stroop, titled Rozmowy z katem ("Conversations with an Executioner"). According to Moczarski, Stroop thus recalled the destruction of Warsaw's Great Synagogue:

What a wonderful sight! I called out, Heil Hitler! and pressed the button. A terrific explosion brought flames right up to the clouds. The colors were unbelievable. An unforgettable allegory of the triumph over Jewry.

On July 23 1951, after a trial lasting three days, a Polish court sentenced Stroop and Franz Konrad to death. Stroop was executed on March 6 1952, outside the Mokotow prison in Warsaw.


In the 1976 film The Eagle Has Landed, Jürgen Stroop is portrayed by the German actor Joachim Hansen (the character is simply referred to as "Herr Gruppenführer" and not by Stroop's actual name, although in the source novel by Jack Higgins, Stroop's name is used). In the 2001 film Uprising, Stroop is depicted by the American actor Jon Voight. In the 2006 Polish television film Rozmowy z katem (Conversations with an Executioner, based on Kazimierz Moczarski's memoir, Stroop is played by the actor Piotr Fronczewski.

 

Stroop Report

Author: Juergen Stroop
Manufacturer: Pantheon
Amazon Price: $9.95
Offers - Buy New From: $60.57 Used From: $2.50
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Editorial Review: Stroop Report


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Gespräche mit dem Henker. Ein Buch nach Tatsachen über den SS-General Jürgen Stroop, den Henker des Warschauer Ghettos (German Edition)

Author: Kazimierz Moczarski
Manufacturer: SAGA Egmont

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Editorial Review: Als Opfer des stalinistischen Terrors war der bürgerlich-demokratische Widerstandskämpfer Kazimierz Moczarski seit August 1945 eingekerkert. Um ihn psychisch zu brechen, pferchte ihn die polnische Stasi für neun Monate in eine Zelle mit Jürgen Stroop, dem SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, der 1943 die Zerstörung des Warschauer Ghettos befehligte. Aus der Erinnerung zeichnete Moczarski die »Gespräche mit dem Henker« auf: die beklemmende Biografie und das zutiefst verstörende Psychogramm eines national-sozialistischen Massenmörders. AUTORENPORTRÄT Kazimierz Moczarski, geboren 1907 in Warschau, studierte Jura und Journalismus in Paris. Mitbegründer der Polnischen Demokratischen Partei. Seit 1940 im Widerstand. Nach seiner Kerkerhaft nahm er seine journalistische und politische Tätigkeit wieder auf. Moczarski starb 1975.


Reviews



The Stroop Report : the Jewish Quarter of Warsaw is No More! / Translated from the German and Annotated by Sybil Milton ; Introduction by Andrzej Wirth

Author: Juergen. Sybil Milton (Transl. ) Stroop
Manufacturer: London : Secker And Warburg
Used From: $15.59
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Editorial Review: The Stroop report: The Jewish Quarter is No More! A Facsimile Edition and Translation of the Official Nazi Report on the Destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto


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Gespräche mit dem Henker. Ein Buch nach Tatsachen über den SS-General Jürgen Stroop, den Henker des Warschauer Ghettos (German Edition)

Author: Kazimierz Moczarski
Manufacturer: Saga Egmont

Buy Now
Editorial Review: Als Opfer des stalinistischen Terrors war der bürgerlich-demokratische Widerstandskämpfer Kazimierz Moczarski seit August 1945 eingekerkert. Um ihn psychisch zu brechen, pferchte ihn die polnische Stasi für neun Monate in eine Zelle mit Jürgen Stroop, dem SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, der 1943 die Zerstörung des Warschauer Ghettos befehligte. Aus der Erinnerung zeichnete Moczarski die »Gespräche mit dem Henker« auf: die beklemmende Biografie und das zutiefst verstörende Psychogramm eines national-sozialistischen Massenmörders. AUTORENPORTRÄT Kazimierz Moczarski, geboren 1907 in Warschau, studierte Jura und Journalismus in Paris. Mitbegründer der Polnischen Demokratischen Partei. Seit 1940 im Widerstand. Nach seiner Kerkerhaft nahm er seine journalistische und politische Tätigkeit wieder auf. Moczarski starb 1975.


Reviews



The Stroop Report by Juergen Stroop (1979-12-12)

Author: Juergen Stroop
Manufacturer: Pantheon; 1st edition (1979-12-12)
Offers - Buy New From: $139.88 Used From: $7.88
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Last Updated on Wednesday, 20 June 2012 10:54
 

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