|Sunday, 19 June 2011 16:33|
Born: 15 February 1890 Niederbreidenbach, Germany
Died: 25 October 1945 Nuremberg, Germany
Cause of death: Suicide by hanging.
Famous because: On 2nd May, 1933, Adolf Hitler ordered the arrest of Germany's trade union leaders. He then gave Ley the task of forming the German Labour Front (DAF) to replace the now outlawed trade unions. Ley confiscated union funds and used the money to fund the Strength through Joy program which funded many a joyful experience and gave rise to the Volkswagen beetle. Set up as a tool to promote the advantages of National Socialism to the people, it soon became the world's largest tourism operator of the 1930s, by 1939 the reported numbers holidaying with Strength through joy 'Kraft durch Freude' was around 25 million people
Robert Ley was a Nazi politician and head of the German Labour Front from 1933 to 1945. He committed suicide while awaiting trial for war crimes.
Ley was born in Niederbreidenbach (now a part of Nümbrecht) in the Rhine Province, the seventh of 11 children of a heavily indebted farmer, Friedrich Ley, and his wife Emilie (née Wald). He studied chemistry at the Universities of Jena, Bonn, and Münster. He volunteered for the Army on the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and spent two years in the artillery before training as an aerial artillery spotter with Field Artillery Detachment 202. In July 1917 his aircraft was shot down over France and he was taken prisoner. It has been suggested that he suffered brain injury in the crash; for the rest of his life he spoke with a stammer and suffered bouts of erratic behaviour, aggravated by heavy drinking.
After the war Ley returned to university, gaining a doctorate in 1920. He was employed as a food chemist by a branch of the giant IG Farben company, based in Leverkusen in the Ruhr. Enraged by the French occupation of the Ruhr in 1924, Ley became an ultra-nationalist and joined the Nazi Party soon after reading Adolf Hitler's speech at his trial following the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. By 1925 he was Gauleiter of the Southern Rhineland district and editor of a virulently anti-Semitic Nazi newspaper, the Westdeutsche Beobachter. Ley proved unswervingly loyal to Hitler, which led the party leader to ignore complaints about his arrogance, incompetence and drunkenness.
In 1931, Ley was brought to the Nazi Party's Munich headquarters to take over as head of the party organisation (Reichsorganisationsleiter) following Hitler's dismissal of Gregor Strasser in an internal dispute. Ley's poor background and his experience as head of the largely working-class Ruhr party region meant that he was sympathetic to the socialist wing of the Nazi Party, which Hitler opposed, but he always sided with Hitler in inner party disputes. This helped him survive the hostility of other party officials such as the party treasurer, Franz Xaver Schwarz, who regarded him as a drunken incompetent. When Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933, Ley accompanied him to Berlin. In April, when the trade union movement was taken over by the state, Hitler appointed him head of the German Labor Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront, DAF).
The DAF took over the existing Nazi trade union formation, the National Socialist Factory Cell Organisation (Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation, NSBO) as well as the main trade union federation. But Ley's lack of administrative ability meant that the NSBO leader, Reinhard Muchow, a member of the socialist wing of the Nazi Party, soon became the dominant figure in the DAF, overshadowing Ley. Muchow began a purge of the DAF administration, rooting out ex-Social Democrats and ex-Communists and placing his own militants in their place. The NSBO cells continued to agitate in the factories on issues of wages and conditions, annoying the employers, who soon complained to Hitler and other Nazi leaders that the DAF was as bad as the Communists had been.
Hitler had no sympathy with the syndicalist tendencies of the NSBO, and in January 1934 a new Law for the Ordering of National Labour effectively suppressed independent working-class factory organisations, even Nazi ones, and put questions of wages and conditions in the hands of the Trustees of Labour (Treuhänder der Arbeit), dominated by the employers. At the same time Muchow was purged and Ley's control over the DAF re-established. The NSBO was completely suppressed and the DAF became little more than an arm of the state for the more efficient deployment and disciplining of labour to serve the needs of the regime, particularly its massive expansion of the arms industry.
Once his power was established, Ley began to abuse it in a way that was conspicuous even by the standards of the Nazi regime. On top of his generous salaries as DAF head, Reichsorganisationsleiter, and Reichstag deputy, he pocketed the large profits of the Westdeutsche Beobachter, and freely embezzled DAF funds for his personal use. By 1938 he owned a luxurious estate near Cologne, a string of villas in other cities, a fleet of cars, a private railway carriage and a large art collection. He increasingly devoted his time to "womanising and heavy drinking, both of which often led to embarrassing scenes in public." In 1942 his second wife Inge shot herself after a drunken brawl. Ley's subordinates took their lead from him, and the DAF became a notorious centre of corruption, all paid for with the compulsory dues paid by German workers. One historian says: "The DAF quickly began to gain a reputation as perhaps the most corrupt of all the major institutions of the Third Reich. For this, Ley himself had to shoulder a large part of the blame."
Hitler and Ley were aware that the suppression of the trade unions and the prevention of wage increases by the Trustees of Labour system, when coupled with their relentless demands for increased productivity to hasten German rearmament, created a real risk of working-class discontent. In November 1933, as a means of preventing labour disaffection, the DAF established Strength Through Joy (Kraft durch Freude, KdF), to provide a range of benefits and amenities to the German working class and their families. These included subsidised holidays both at resorts across Germany and in "safe" countries abroad (particularly Italy). The world's first purpose built cruise-liners, the Wilhelm Gustloff and the Robert Ley, were built to take KdF members on Mediterranean cruises.
Other KdF programs included concerts, opera and other forms of entertainment in factories and other workplaces, free physical education and gymnastics training and coaching in sports such as football, tennis and sailing. All this was paid for by the DAF, at a cost of 29 million Reichsmarks a year by 1937, and ultimately by the workers themselves through their dues, although the employers also contributed. KdF was one of the Nazi regime's most popular programs, and played a large part in reconciling the working class to the regime, at least before 1939.
The DAF and KdF's most ambitious program was the "people's car", the Volkswagen, originally a project undertaken at Hitler's request by the car-maker Ferdinand Porsche. When the German car industry was unable to meet Hitler's demand that the Volkswagen be sold at 1,000 Reichsmarks or less, the project was taken over by the DAF. This brought Ley's old socialist tendencies back into prominence. The party, he said, had taken over where private industry had failed, because of the "short-sightedness, malevolence, profiteering and stupidity" of the business class. Now working for the DAF, Porsche built a new Volkswagen factory at Fallersleben, at a huge cost which was partly met by raiding the DAF's accumulated assets and misappropriating the dues paid by DAF members. The Volkswagen was sold to German workers on an installment plan, and the first models appeared in February 1939. The outbreak of war, however, meant that none of the 340,000 workers who paid for a car ever received one. The entire project was financially unsound, and only the corruption and lack of accountability of the Nazi regime made it possible.
Ley was always aware that the central objective of the Third Reich, and of his leadership of the DAF, was to prepare Germany for war. He said in a speech in 1939: "We National Socialists have monopolized all resources and all our energies during the past seven years so as to be able to be equipped for the supreme effort of battle." With the actual outbreak of World War II in 1939, however, Ley's importance declined. The militarisation of the workforce and the diversion of resources to the war greatly reduced the role of the DAF, and the KdF was largely wound up. Ley's drunkenness and erratic behaviour were less tolerated in wartime, and he was supplanted by Armaments Minister Fritz Todt and his successor Albert Speer as the czar of the German workforce (the head of the Organisation Todt (OT)). As German workers were increasingly conscripted, foreign workers, first "guest workers" from France and later slave labourers from Poland, Ukraine and other eastern countries, were brought in to replace them. Ley played some role in this program, but was overshadowed by Fritz Sauckel, General Plenipotentiary for the Distribution of Labour (Generalbevollmächtigter für den Arbeitseinsatz), in 1942.
Nevertheless Ley was deeply implicated in the mistreatment of foreign slave workers. In October 1942 he attended a meeting in Essen with Paul Plieger (head of the giant Hermann Göring Works industrial combine) and leaders of the German coal industry. A verbatim account of the meeting was kept by one of the managers. A recent historian writes:
Despite his failings, Ley retained Hitler's favour; until the last months of the war he was part of Hitler's inner circle along with Martin Bormann and Joseph Goebbels. In November 1941 he was given a new role, as Reich Commissioner for Social House-Building (Reichskommissar für den sozialen Wohnungsbau), later shortened to Reich Housing Commissioner (Reichswohnungskommissar). Here his job was to prepare for the effects on German housing of the expected Allied air attacks on German cities, which began to increase in intensity from 1941 onwards. In this role he became a key ally of Armaments Minister Albert Speer, who recognised that German workers must be adequately housed if productivity was to be maintained. As the air war against Germany increased from 1943, "dehousing" German workers became an objective of the Allied area bombing campaign, and Ley's commissariat was increasingly unable to cope with the resulting housing crisis.
Ley was aware in general terms of the Nazi regime's program of extermination of the Jews of Europe and encouraged it through the virulent anti-Semitism of his publications and speeches. In February 1941 he was present at a meeting along with Speer, Bormann and Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel at which Hitler had set out his views on the "Jewish question" at some length, making it clear that he intended the "disappearance" of the Jews one way or another.
As the Third Reich collapsed in early 1945, Ley was among the government figures who remained fanatically loyal to Hitler. He last saw Hitler on 20 April 1945, Hitler's birthday, in the Führerbunker in central Berlin. The next day he left for southern Bavaria, in the expectation that Hitler would make his last stand in the "National Redoubt" in the alpine areas. When Hitler refused to leave Berlin, this idea was abandoned, and Ley was then effectively unemployed. On 16 May he was captured by American paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division in a shoemaker's house in the village of Schleching. He told them he was "Dr. Ernst Distelmeyer," but he was identified by Franz Xaver Schwarz, the treasurer of the Nazi Party and a long-time enemy.
At the Nuremberg War Trials, Ley was indicted under Count One ("The Common Plan or Conspiracy to wage an aggressive war in violation of international law or treaties"), Count Three (War Crimes, including among other things "mistreatment of prisoners of war or civilian populations") and Count Four ("Crimes Against Humanity - murder, extermination, enslavement of civilian populations; persecution on the basis of racial, religions or political grounds"). Ley was apparently indignant at being regarded as a war criminal, telling the American prison psychologist Gustave Gilbert: "Stand us against a wall and shoot us, well and good, you are victors. But why should I be brought before a Tribunal like a c-c-c- ... I can't even get the word out!"
On 24 October, three days after receiving the indictment, Ley strangled himself in his cell, using a noose made by tearing a towel into strips, fastened to the toilet pipe in his cell. This incident led to the tightening of security around other prisoners for fear that they would commit suicide as well.
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Whether we like it or not, we live in a world ruled by conflict and fierce competition, a world that requires us to always be alert and to constantly to take action. If we are not careful, if we don’t react in time to the challenges given to us, if we let others control and make decisions for us, we are lost. This quick guide takes us back to the basic ideas of the controversial yet indispensable book by Robert Greene, The 48 Laws of Power, which has been read by millions of people worldwide. Not only is it a reflection on power, but it is also a practical instrument for those who wish to pave their own way toward success. Based on historical ideas and influential personalities and drawing on actual cases, Greene reveals the keys to achieve, conquer, and defend power.
Manufacturer: Editorial Oceano de Mexico
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Editorial Review: Hip-hop and pop culture icon 50 Cent joins forces with Robert Greene, the bestselling author of The 48 Laws of Power, to write a bible for success in life and work based on a single principle: Fear nothing. With intimate stories from 50 Cent's life on the streets and in the boardroom as he rose to fame after the release of his album Get Rich or Die Tryin’, as well as examples of others who have overcome adversity through understanding and practicing the 50th Law, this deeply inspirational book is perfect for entrepreneurs and anyone interested in the extraordinary life of 50 Cent.
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George is determined to save the world by lunchtime, but he’s not quite sure how. Grandpa suggests they start by recycling the yogurt container from his breakfast, putting his banana peel in the compost pile, and hanging the laundry to dry in the sun. A bike trip to the recycling center, charity shop, and local farmers’ market show how recycling and reusing materialsas well as using less gas and buying local producecan really help save the world. George even gets a favorite toy fixed! Highly original and eye-catching illustrations combine painting and photographs to draw children into the world of recycling.
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Editorial Review: Libro audaz, artero, sagaz, inescrupuloso e instructivo, presenta la sintesis de una profunda investigacion de las filosofias de grandes pensadores de la talla de Maquiavelo, Sun-Tzu y Carl von Clausewitz, en relacion con las 48 leyes fundamentales que a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad han regulado y siguen regulando el incremento o la reduccion del poder.
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Editorial Review: RESUMEN COMPLETO DEL LIBRO
"LAS 48 LEYES DEL PODER" (The 48 Laws of Power)
de Robert Greene
DESCRIPCION DEL LIBRO ORIGINAL:
Este libro audaz y muy sagaz presenta 48 ideas que nos abren los ojos y nos preparan para el mundo competitivo en el que nos movemos. Estas "leyes" fundamentales son una combinación de acciones, pensamientos y estrategias que se pueden emplear para "jugar al juego del poder".
La idea generadora de su autor, Robert Greene, es que el poder es un factor primordial en la promoción y éxito de un emprendimiento o negocio.Aprender el juego del poder requiere de una perspectiva especial para mirar al mundo, una mirada diferente de esa con la que hemos crecido, condicionados por nuestros padres que nos inculcaron los conceptos de "honestidad" y "justicia" que la sociedad considera como valores ideales.A medida que se avanza en la obra, el lector entiende que en las épocas en las que vivimos es peligroso y poco saludable mostrarnos ambiciosos y ávidos de poder. Debemos actuar con sutileza y astucia, para parecer justos y muy decentes aún sin serlo.
La vida misma de Robert Greene fue un ejemplo de esto. Recorrió el mismo camino que la mayoría, hasta que decidió profundizar en la historia, observar los ejemplos de personalidades destacadas y aprender todo acerca de las estrategias para triunfar en un mundo despiadado.Así nacieron las 48 leyes del poder.
SOBRE EL AUTOR DEL RESUMEN:
Los libros son mentores. Pueden guiar lo que hacemos en nuestras vidas y cómo lo hacemos. Muchos de nosotros amamos los libros mientras los leemos y hasta resuenan con nosotros algunas semanas después, pero luego de 2 años no podemos recordar si lo hemos leído o no. Y eso no está bien. Recordamos que en el momento, aquel libro significó mucho para nosotros. ¿Por qué es que tiempo después nos hemos olvidado de todo?
Este resumen toma las ideas más importantes del libro original.
A muchas personas no les gusta leer, solo quieren saber qué es lo que el libro dice que deben hacer. Si confías en el autor no necesitas de los argumentos. La gran parte de los libros son argumentos de sus ideas, pero muy a menudo no necesitamos argumentos si confiamos en la fuente. Podemos entender la idea de inmediato.
Toda esta información está en libro original. Este resumen hace el esfuerzo de reducir las redundancias y convertirlas en instrucciones directo al grano para las personas que no tienen intención de leer el libro en su totalidad.
Esta es la misión de Sapiens Editorial.
|Last Updated on Sunday, 19 June 2011 16:53|